Sunday, 17 June 2012

Vibrant Detroit
The ten most dangerous cities in America all have non-white majority populations, new FBI data has revealed.

This not-so-surprising news is just the latest piece of evidence that emphasizes a clear correlation between increased non-white immigration and soaring crime figures.

An earlier report from County Durham Patriots already showed that non-whites commit the majority of all violent crimes in London, despite still being a minority of the city’s population.

And it seems that trend is continued across the pond, or, in fact, wherever there reside non-white populations.

Skeptics may wish to refer to The New Century Foundation’s The Color of Crime (2005), an American report on the differences in crime rates by race. It found that:

• Blacks are seven times more likely than people of other races to commit murder, and eight times more likely to commit robbery.

• Hispanics commit violent crimes at roughly three times the white rate.

• Of the nearly 770,000 violent interracial crimes committed every year involving blacks and whites, blacks commit 85 percent and whites commit 15 percent.

• Blacks are an estimated 39 times more likely to commit a violent crime against a white than vice versa, and 136 times more likely to commit robbery.

• Blacks are 2.25 times more likely to commit officially-designated hate crimes against whites than vice versa.

• Only 10 percent of youth gang members are white.

• Hispanics are 19 times more likely than whites to be members of youth gangs. Blacks are 15 times more likely, and Asians are nine times more likely.

• Blacks are seven times more likely to be in prison than whites. Hispanics are three times more likely.

Enforced layoffs

The rising lawlessness in the US has not been helped by strained police finances and subsequent layoffs, reports 24/7 Wall St., who compiled the top ten list.

More than half of the cities with the highest violent crime rates are cutting law enforcement budgets and police forces. However, unlike the national picture, the situation is worse for these cities, which depend on tax bases that are shrinking faster than most.

The cities with the highest crime rates tend to have particularly high poverty rates, high unemployment and low median income. Two of the worst-off cities, Flint and Detroit, Michigan, both have had well-publicized budget woes. Flint was taken over by an emergency city manager after failing to pay its bills in 2011. Detroit is facing similar budget problems and recently came to a temporary oversight agreement with the state.

The top ten

24/7 Wall St.’s list is based on the FBI’s Uniform Crime Report. The news website identified the 10 US cities with populations of 100,000 or more with the highest rates of violent crime per 1,000 residents.

Using the estimated populations and crime incidents from UCR, which measures incidents of eight types of violent and non-violent crime for 2011, 24/7 Wall St. calculated the incidence of the four types of violent crime per 1,000 persons for that year: murder, forcible rape, robbery and aggravated assault. In addition to crime data, 24/7 Wall St. reviewed median income and poverty rates for these cities from the US Census Bureau for 2010, the most recent available year. They also included average 2011 unemployment rates for these cities, provided by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The demographic data is taken from the 2010 US Census.

The top ten most dangerous cities in America are listed below.

Note: According to the US Government, people who identify their origin as Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino may be of any race. Thus, the ‘Hispanic or Latino’ percentage should not be added to percentages for the other racial categories. In the below figures, the percentages of the white populations have been separated from those of the so-called White Hispanic populations.

Also, the US Government defines ‘White’ as ‘a person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. It includes people who indicate their race as "White" or report entries such as Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Arab, Moroccan, or Caucasian’, ergo the real ‘White’ populationsmay well be lower than the below figures.

10. Stockton, California

Violent crimes per 1,000: 14.1
Population: 295,136
2011 murders: 58
Median income: $45,606
Unemployment rate: 20.2%


White (22.9%)
White Hispanic (14.1%)
Black (12.2%)
American Indian (1.1%)
Asian (21.5%)
Pacific Islander (0.6%)
Mixed race (6.9%)
Hispanic or Latino (40.3%)

In 2010, Stockton had an unemployment rate of 18.4%, among the worst in the nation for large cities. In 2011, the labour market worsened and unemployment rose to 20.2%, well more than double the national average of 8.9% and the highest of any of the cities on this list. Violent crime rates also have worsened, increasing from 13.8 crimes per 1,000 people in 2010. Though Stockton has long had high crime rates, the 58 murders recorded in Stockton last year were an all-time record for the city. This month, to curb the increasing crime rates in the city, police decided to prioritize violent crime and to no longer respond to property crimes in the city unless certain criminal conditions were met.

9. Baltimore, Maryland

Violent crimes per 1,000: 14.2
Population: 626,848
2011 murders: 196
Median income: $38,346
Unemployment rate: 10.5%


White (28%)
White Hispanic (1.6%)
Black (63.7%)
American Indian (0.4%)
Asian (2.3%)
Mixed race (2.1%)
Hispanic or Latino (4.2%)

Baltimore managed to decrease its violent crime rate slightly from 14.6 per 1,000 in 2010 to 14.2 last year. This coincides with a 12% decrease in murders. However, Baltimore still has the sixth-highest homicide rate of any US city with a population above 100,000. Baltimore’s murder rate has been dropping steadily, but with 341 forcible rape cases in 2011 and the 11th-highest aggravated assault rate in the country, many residents are victims. In 2010, Baltimore made plans to layoff 193 police due to budget cuts.
Non-Hispanic Whites made up 28% of the population in 2010, compared to 80.6% in 1940.

8. Atlanta, Georgia

Violent crimes per 1,000: 14.3
Population: 425,533
2011 murders: 88
Median income: $41,631
Unemployment rate:12.1%


White (36.3%)
White Hispanic (2.1%)
Black (54%)
Asian (3.1%)
Native American (0.2%)
Mixed race (2%)
Hispanic or Latino (5.2%)

Compared to most American cities, Atlanta has extremely high incidences of both violent and property crimes. The city’s 8.27 aggravated assaults per 1,000 people is one of the 10 highest rates among the country’s largest cities, as is the city’s 70.84 property crimes per 1,000 people. Atlanta also has one of the nation’s highest rates of motor vehicle theft, with a total of 5,371 incidents in the city last year. Vehicle theft likely will remain an issue throughout 2012 as well; in March almost 100 individuals were arrested as part of a single auto theft operation.

7. Birmingham, Alabama

Violent crimes per 1,000: 14.8
Population: 213,258
2011 murders: 54
Median income: $30,212
Unemployment rate: 10.9%


White (21.1%)
White Hispanic (1.2%)
Black (73.4%)
American Indian (0.2%)
Asian (1%)
Mixed race (1%)
Hispanic or Latino (3.6%)

New on the list this year is Birmingham, which ranks among the top five cities in the US for forcible rape and property crime rates. The city also has among the highest rates of burglary and larceny-theft. Like many other high crime cities, Birmingham has one of the highest poverty rates in the country, at 25.1%. Despite the rampant crime, officials announced last year that they planned to lay off 148 employees of the sheriff’s department in an effort to reduce the budget by $12.3 million.

6. Little Rock, Arkansas

Violent crimes per 1,000: 14.9
Population: 194,988
2011 murders: 37
Median income: $44,415
Unemployment rate: 7.2%


White (46.7%)
White Hispanic (2.2%)
Black (42.3%)
American Indian (0.4%)
Asian (2.7%)
Pacific Islander (0.1%)
Mixed race (1.7%)
Hispanic or Latino (6.8%)

Though Little Rock’s 2011 violent crime rate is down from 2010, when there were 15.2 violent crimes for every 1,000 people, in many ways the city’s crime rate has not truly improved. Although in 2010 there were only 25 murders in the city, in 2011 there were 37. Additionally, incidents of forcible rape increased from 149 to 161, while the number of property crime incidents increased by 708, or almost 5%. According to the Little Rock Police Department’s COMPSTAT reports, the total number of violent, property and arson crimes has experienced a net increase since 2001, although with slight declines in more recent years.

5. Memphis, Tennessee

Violent crimes per 1,000: 15.8
Population: 652,725
2011 murders: 117
Median income: $37,045
Unemployment rate: 11.1%


White (27.5%)
White Hispanic (1.9%)
Black (63.3%)
American Indian (0.2%)
Asian (1.6%)
Mixed race (1.4%)
Hispanic or Latino (6.5%)

In 2011, Memphis defied the national trend of declining crime rates in major US cities. The rate of violent crimes per 1,000 people increased, from 15.4 to 15.8. This was the product of increases in murders, which rose from 89 to 117 cases, and aggravated assault incidents, which rose by 100 cases. A rising unemployment rate, which grew 1.2% to 11.1% in 2011, likely has not helped to reduce criminal behaviour. With a current budget deficit of $45 million, Mayor Wharton says he may need to consider ‘taking boots off the street’, by laying off members of the police force in the near future.

4. Oakland, California

Violent crimes per 1,000: 16.8
Population: 395,317
2011 murders: 104
Median income: $49,190
Unemployment rate: 15.6%


White (25.9%)
White Hispanic (8.6%)
Black (28%)
American Indian (0.8%)
Asian (16.8%)
Pacific Islander (0.6%)
Mixed race (5.6%)
Hispanic or Latino (25.4%)

Oakland historically has been among the most crime-ridden cities in California, with a violent crime rate this year of 16.8 per 1,000 people. There were 14 more murders in 2011 than in 2010, causing Oakland to maintain the ninth-highest murder rate in the country two years in a row. Oakland is the number one city for both robbery and motor vehicle theft rates in the country. Oakland city council member Desley Brooks, who wants to allocate $11 million in revenue to the police force, acknowledges the increased violent crime, saying, ‘We cannot ignore that we have had an increase in violent crime, and so we cannot continue to do the same thing the same way and expect that it’s going to be a different result.’

3. St. Louis, Missouri

Violent crimes per 1,000: 18.6
Population: 320,454
2011 murders: 113
Median income: $32,688
Unemployment rate: 11.7%


White (42.2%)
White Hispanic (1.7%)
Black (49.2%)
American Indian (0.3%)
Asian (2.9%)
Mixed race (2.4%)
Hispanic or Latino (3.5%)

Although the total number of murders in the city has decreased by 31 since 2010, crime in St. Louis did not improve overall last year. Violent crime rates in St. Louis have risen dramatically, from 17.5 to 18.6 cases per 1,000 people. And the city’s murder rate is still the fourth highest in the nation, its robbery rate is the fifth highest in the nation and its aggravated assault rate is third highest in the nation. Despite these troubling facts, the St. Louis Police Department recently faced potentially drastic budget cuts that may require the elimination of 100 street-patrolling officer positions through attrition.

2. Detroit, Michigan

Violent crimes per 1,000: 21.4
Population: 713,239
2011 murders: 344
Median income: $25,787
Unemployment rate: 19.9%


White (7.8%)
White Hispanic (2.8%)
Black (82.7%)
American Indian (0.4%)
Asian (1.1%)
Mixed race (2.2%)
Hispanic or Latino (7.8%)

Long regarded as one of the poorest cities in the US, with a 32.3% poverty rate and nearly 20% unemployment in 2010, Detroit has the second-highest violent crime rate in the country. Homicide increased by 11% in 2011, while robbery and aggravated assault are fourth and second highest in the country, respectively. Non-violent crime is also an issue, with burglary, motor vehicle theft and arson rates in the top 10 rankings in the country. In response to an 18% decrease in the Detroit police budget, which will result in the elimination of 380 positions through attrition and early retirement, the city has begun taking steps to decrease police funding by introducing ‘Virtual Precincts’. The plan, which closes police stations between 4 p.m. and 8 a.m, requires citizens to report non-emergency crime to a call centre, and frees up more patrol officers to respond to 911 emergency calls.

1. Flint, Michigan

Violent crimes per 1,000: 23.4
Population: 102,357
2011 murders: 52
Median income: $22,672
Unemployment rate: 18.9%


White (35.7%)
White Hispanic (1.7%)
Black (56.6%)
American Indian (0.5%)
Asian (0.5%)
Mixed race (3.9%)
Hispanic or Latino (3.9%)

According to the FBI, no city with more than 100,000 residents had a higher violent crime rate than Flint. In 2011, there were 2,392 incidents of violent crime in Flint, which has a population just above 100,000. That same year, there were just 1,246 violent crimes in all 10 of the safest cities in America – which have 13 times as many residents as Flint among them. Flint has the second-highest murder rate and the highest rates of aggravated assault, burglary and arson in the nation. According to Flint Mayor Dayne Walling: ‘There are too many guns on the street and it’s easy for individuals with evil motives to take another human being’s life.’ Though the violent crime has long been a problem in Flint, in 2010 the city laid off 20 of its 140 police officers, a decision that diminished both the police’s street presence and response times to crime.

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